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Crusader Arrowhead Found

Yesterday, Jakob Okun, age 14, found a fantastic Crusader arrowhead. He came with classmates from Bi-Cultural Day School located in Stamford, CT USA.

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Crusader era arrowhead found at the Temple Mount Sifting Project

Could it have been used by the Knights Templar??

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Crusader era arrowhead

In scholarly texts, the Temple Mount is commonly associated with the Knights Templar in the Crusader Period (1099-1187 CE). The Knights used the Al-Aqsa Mosque as their headquarters and turned the large southeastern substructure into stables for their horses, calling it “Solomon’s Stables.” The earth we are sifting originated in the area of Solomon’s Stables and has yielded many remnants of Crusader activity, including arrowheads like this one! We’ve also found many horseshoe nails and armor scales typical of European medieval cavalry. This is the first archaeological evidence we have of the Knights Templar in Solomon’s Stables.

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Crusader era iron horseshoe nails which belonged to the horses of the knights Templar that resided in Solomon’s Stables.

The finds from our project greatly contribute to the archaeological and historical research of the Temple Mount during the Crusader Period. We discovered the biggest and most varied collection of silver coins ever found in Jerusalem from this period; among them are extremely rare coins and a one-of-a-kind Knights Templar medallion. The Crusader finds include many cruciform pendants, pottery and architectural remains. Many opus sectile floor tiles -that were installed in the Dome of the Rock and dismantled in later periods – were recovered in the sifting, enabling us to replicate the elaborate floor of the Dome of the Rock during the Crusaders’ times.

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Arrowheads from the Second Temple Period

For more information on our other finds, such as these arrowheads from the Second Temple Period, check out the  “What have you found so far?” section of our crowdfunding website for our first publication.

National Service Doing the World a Service

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Staff Spotlight: May

NoaHave you met Noa?

Noa is our Bat Sherut this year at our sifting site in Emek Tzurim National Park, meaning that she is doing her National Service by working with our project. She is a very meticulous and focused sifter, and she is a champion at finding small bits of plaster and other small finds. One of her favorite artifacts that she has found is a very small fragment of a hair comb made of bone that dates to the Second Temple. She said, “it is a very small artifact, but a very valuable one.” Able to identify and teach about the different types of rocks and special stones, as well as other categories of finds, she is a fantastic help at the site and a great guide for all of our English and Hebrew speaking groups.

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A selection of bone hair combs found in the sifting at the Temple Mount Sifting Project

Noa is from Na’ale, which is a yishuv near modiin. She decided to do her Sherut Leumi, or National Service, with the Sifting Project because she has always been interested in the past and especially the history of Israel and Jewish culture. When she heard that there was an option to do her National Service at the Sifting Project, she decided to check it out and we are so glad that she did!

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A fragment of a stone vessel found in the sifting at the Temple Mount Sifting Project

Before working with the Sifting Project, Noa says that she knew the general history of the Temple Mount, but that now she has studied more intensively about the Temple. For example, she explains that she now knows much more about the different vessels of the Temple, such as those made of stone. Stone vessels were very popular during the Second Temple Period (1st century BCE – 1st century CE) because they don’t get defiled or absorb spiritual impurity.

Noa loves working with our volunteer groups. She specifically has good memories of working with a mechina of olim chadashim (high school age preparatory program for new Israeli citizens) that comes to sift every year. Next year, she plans to work in agriculture and then spend some time traveling. When she returns to Israel, she wants to study Toldot Israel, the history of the ancient Israeli nation, in university.

Stay tuned and get to know us! We will be putting a spotlight on different staff members each month. Leave a comment and share our posts if you had a good experience working with our staff!

Rare Egyptian Amulet Bearing Name of Ancient Pharaoh Found in Earth Discarded from Temple Mount

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As the Jewish holiday of Passover quickly approaches, we have has released new information about an amazing find: an amulet bearing the name of Egyptian King Thutmose III. Our story is being shared by news agencies across the world including the New York Times and the ABC News. Please continue reading our Blog to get more up to the minute and detailed information about our finds and continuing research.

Here is a more detailed version of our press release.

JERUSALEM, April 19, 2016 — A rare amulet, more than 3,200 years old, bearing the name of the Egyptian ruler Thutmose III, Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who reigned from 1479 – 1425 BCE, was discovered at the Temple Mount Sifting Project located in Jerusalem’s Tzurim Valley National Park within earth discarded from the Temple Mount, and was only recently deciphered by archaeologists. The project is conducted under the auspices of Bar-Ilan University, with the support of the City of David Foundation, the Israel Archaeology Foundation, and the Israel Nature and Parks Authority.

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Thutmose III was one of the most important pharaohs in Egypt’s New Kingdom and is credited with establishing the Egyptian imperial province in Canaan, conducting 17 military campaigns to Canaan and Syria and defeating a coalition of Canaanite kings at the city of Megiddo in 1457 BCE. He referred to himself as ‘the one who has subdued a thousand cities,’ and it is known that for more than 300 years, during the Late Bronze Age, Canaan and the city state of Jerusalem were under Egyptian dominion, likely explaining the presence of this amulet in Jerusalem.

4 - IMG_3320 - Adina GrahamThe amulet was discovered by Neshama Spielman, a twelve year-old girl from Jerusalem who came with her family to participate in the Temple Mount Sifting Project. “While I was sifting, I came across a piece of pottery that was different from others I had seen, and I immediately thought that maybe I had found something special,” said Spielman. “It’s amazing to find something thousands of years old from ancient Egypt all the way here in Jerusalem! Celebrating Passover this year is going to be extra meaningful to me.” The Passover festival, commemorating the Biblical account of the ancient Israelites Exodus from Egypt, will be celebrated later this week.

Since the project’s inception in 2004, more than 170,000 volunteers from Israel and around the world have taken part in the sifting, representing an unprecedented phenomenon in the realm of archaeological research.

The small amulet is in the shape of a pendant, missing its bottom part, measures 21mm wide, 4 mm thick and its preserved length is 16 mm. It is made of brown colored faience that lost its glazing. A loop on top allowed it to be strung and hung on the neck. The raised decoration displays a cartouche – an oval frame surrounding Egyptian hieroglyphics bearing the name of the Egyptian ruler. Above the oval framing is the symbol of an eye, and to its right are remnants of yet another hieroglyphic symbol depicting a cobra of which parts of the head and tail are preserved.

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While Egyptian scarabs bearing the name of Thutmose III have previously been discovered in Jerusalem, this represents the first time his name has been found in Jerusalem adorning an amulet. Objects bearing the name of Thutmose III continued to be produced in Egypt long after the time of his reign, reflecting the significance and lasting impression of this king.

The amulet can be reconstructed based upon the discovery of an identical pendant found in Nahal Iron in northern Israel, announced in 1978. Along with that pendant, which also bore the name of Thutmose III was another amulet bearing the name of King Seti I, an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled Egypt during the late 14th – early 13th centuries BCE. This seems to indicate that both pendants date to the same time period, namely the late 14th – early 13th century BCE.

The amulet may have been buried in earth brought to the Temple Mount to be used as fill for the expansion of the Mount in Second Temple period. This earth probably originated in the slopes of the Kidron Valley near the Temple Mount, an area which contained tombs of the Late Bronze Age (1550-1150 B.C.E). Pottery sherds dated to this period were discovered in the Temple Mount Sifting Project, including some imported from Cyprus and Mycenaean Greece, as well as a couple of Egyptian style scarabs’.

These artifacts can be added to other finds dated to the Late Bronze Age (1550-1880 BCE) discovered in past years in the City of David as well as artifacts hinting to the possible existence of an Egyptian temple, in the Dominican monastery of St. Étienne north of the Damascus Gate. These Late Bronze Age finds date to the time period corresponding to the eve of the common dating of the Biblical Exodus.

The research of the amulet was conducted by archaeologist Baruch Brandl from the Israel Antiquities Authority.

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The Temple Mount Sifting Project was initiated in response to the illegal removal of tons of earth from the Temple Mount by the Islamic Movement in 1999 without any archaeological supervision.

Since the Temple Mount has never been excavated, the ancient artifacts retrieved in the Sifting Project provide valuable and previously inaccessible information. The many categories of finds are among the largest and most varied ever found in Jerusalem. Even though they have been extracted from their archaeological context, most of these artifacts can be identified and dated by comparing them with those found at other sites.

In addition to the ongoing sifting of the earth illegally removed from the Temple Mount, The Temple Mount Sifting Project has focused its efforts on the enormous tasks of processing and studying the finds and preparing them for scientific publication. Presently, more than half a million finds are still waiting to be processed and analyzed in their laboratory. Click here for information about how to become more involved in our publication process.

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